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"Introduction to the volume: PUBLIC PROCUREMENT'S PLACE IN THE WORLD. THE CHARGE TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY AND INNOVATION," Rivista di.
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However, about half of the 5, Brazilian municipalities still dispose of their waste in dump sites, and the percentage of cities with controlled landfills remained virtually stagnant for eight years - The increased reduction of disposal in dump sites recorded between and is due to the fact that the 13 largest cities with population over one million collect over 35 percent off all urban waste in the country and have appropriate disposal sites.
Projects of energy recovery from the use of household solid waste disposed of in sanitary landfills have also become, since the Johannesburg Summit in , a business opportunity as Clean Development Mechanisms CDM. Thus, developed countries fund pollution reduction projects to meet their carbon emission reduction targets Goldenberg, In the country, until January 31, of the CDM project activities carried out in different sectors, 36 consisted of sanitary landfills Brazil, Civil construction waste also represents a major environmental problem, especially because of its improper disposal into streams, vacant lots and roadsides.
In medium and large cities in Brazil, this type of waste accounts for over 50 percent of the total generation of urban waste. Studies show that in some municipalities, formal construction account for 15 percent to 30 percent of the overall amount of construction and demolition waste, and 75 percent comes from informal events, construction works, renovations and demolitions carried out in general by the dwellers themselves Sinduscon, It is up to the municipalities to develop integrated management plans that include: a Municipal Management Program for small waste generators ; b Management Project for construction works for the approval of projects of large waste generators.
These projects should characterize the waste and indicate sorting, packaging, transportation and disposal procedures CONAMA Resolution. The provision of selective collection services by Brazilian municipalities has improved. However, it is still far below the levels required to effectively reduce the amount of potentially recyclable waste that is still disposed of in landfills or dump sites and the resulting impacts.
Note that the first initiatives in Brazil date back to and that the absence of more than twenty years of a national solid waste policy and of political will from municipal governments has generated an environmental liability of controlled dumps and landfills. Add to that the need to build new landfills due to the exhaustion of the useful life of most of the existing ones. Selective waste collection has increased from 58 municipalities that provided the service in to in , and were identified in In municipalities, selective collection is operated by the municipality together with waste pickers organized into cooperatives and associations, and in municipalities by individual waste pickers IBGE, The collection carried out by most municipalities is partial, which contributes significantly to this lack of knowledge.
However, an important indicator is that in the sample of municipalities identified by the SNIS , in over 90 percent of them a differentiated collection of RSS, which is essential in the case of RSS that causes a great impact on the environment and health. As for the final disposal of RSS in the country: Although federal regulations provide for the need to treat certain classes of health care waste prior to its final disposal, many municipalities still dispose of this type of waste in sanitary landfills, controlled landfills and dump sites without prior treatment, thus representing a risk to public health and to the health of workers involved in related activities.
Metropolitan Brazil includes 35 metropolitan regions and three integrated regions - municipalities in 22 Brazilian units of the federation in the five greater regions. These territories are home to Formed by 39 municipalities, it comprises the state capital and 38 neighboring municipalities, and is responsible for an estimated 6 production of 16, tons of solid waste per day, or nearly six million tons per year. The absence of a metropolitan waste planning and management structure is one of the factors that hinder integrated and coordinated action between the municipalities that could reduce environmental and financial costs.
Household waste generation per capita in the MRSP is estimated at an average of 0. A differential of the MRSP in relation to the other metropolitan regions is the eradication of disposal in dump sites, as shown on the map in Figure 1. However, of the estimated The number of municipalities that dispose of their waste in sanitary landfills located in other municipalities increased from 23 in to 32 in As shown on the map in Figure 1 , 23 of the 39 municipalities dispose of their waste in other municipalities.
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In , 29 municipalities in the MRSP In 28 of them the service was provided in partnership with waste picker organizations. Although the percentage of recyclable materials sent to recycling companies by waste picker organizations has increased, most still comes from informal picking carried out in poor conditions in urban streets Besen, Environmental constraints in 54 percent of the metropolitan territory located in watershed protection areas, hinder the installation of waste treatment or disposal equipment, causing waste to be transported to increasingly distant areas, at higher costs for the municipalities.
In recent decades the city has experienced negative growth rates in the central areas, on the one hand, where the population is already consolidated and on the other, population growth in outlying areas, thus compounding the challenges of solid waste management. In terms of municipal budget, 5. The Secretariat of Public Works and Services, through the Department of Urban Cleaning Limpurb , is responsible for managing urban cleaning services in the city: collection of health care, household and selective waste, street sweeping, cleaning of monuments and stairways and removal of debris.
Over 17, tons of urban waste are collected in the city each day - including debris and waste from other city cleaning services - of which 12, tons are from homes and open markets PMSP, a.
The collection of household and health care waste and recyclable materials is carried out by two concessionaires, Loga and Ecourbis. Since December , solid waste management has been given a concession for a period of up to twenty years. At the time of the contract, the administration considered this the best alternative to ensure the necessary investments in the system, especially in regard to final disposal, treatment and selective collection.
Since the introduction of contracts, the collection of household waste has been independent of the collection of waste from sweeping and other public cleaning services. The concession includes investment in the implementation of new sanitary landfills, transshipment units and composting plants in the landfills to be built. It also includes selective collection, containerization of household collection, sorting centers and differentiated collection in slums.
The concession system has led to the unification of the various services previously provided by different companies into two contracts of twenty years each, in order to promote gains of scale and logistics for the companies. The concession contract was signed based on the premise that its sustainability would be achieved by charging a specific public cleaning tariff that was implemented in The tariff was proportional to the amount of waste generated per household.
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However, this tariff was abolished in for political reasons, and the impact of this measure has since then compromised the quality of the services provided. What is observed is that the amount of solid waste in the streets has increased, investments in selective collection and expansion of recycling plants for the 31 boroughs has remained stagnant, and because of the exhaustion of the useful life of the existing landfills, the collection and final disposal of urban waste has burdened the administration with high logistics and transportation costs.
Collection in the city has been divided into two sectors as shown on the map in Figure 3. The first sector, operated by the Loga consortium, comprises the boroughs of the North, West, Central and Penha zones. In the first sector, about six thousand tons of household waste is collected and some 6. Most of this waste collected is sent to the waste disposal center, CDR Pedreira, operated by the Estre Environmental company and located in Guarulhos.
The second sector, operated by Ecourbis, comprises the boroughs of the South and East zones and serves 4. Through these systems, the recovery of areas and the implementation of an electricity generation system can be economically feasible through the sale of carbon credits resulting from the reduction of carbon emissions into the atmosphere.
In the Bandeirantes Landfill, the project was implemented in , with the capacity to generate , MW per year and avoid the emission of eight million tons of carbon dioxide by These initiatives are in agreement with measures to reduce the impact of global warming and greenhouse effect on the city. The challenge of selective collection with the inclusion of waste pickers.
In late , 15 sorting centers had already been established in public areas and were operated by waste pickers. The expectation was to implement 31 centers, one in each borough, provided for in the concession contract, and increase the creation of jobs through the inclusion of other organized groups of waste pickers who worked in the city more than 70 at the time. This, however, never occurred. In this context, and without the resources of the solid waste tariff, which was revoked in , there was an impact on the municipal government's ability to manage and maintain the quality of the services provided, and to advance in the consolidation of selective collection with the inclusion of waste pickers.
In there were 94 organized groups of waste pickers in the city, but only 15 percent were linked to the municipality's sorting centers. The current amounts diverted from the landfill by the official selective collection program - the equivalent of tons per day - represent about one percent of the total amount collected daily in the city, or 3. And it should also be pointed out that of the trucks contracted to collect garbage in the capital, only 20 7 percent are used in selective collection Bizzotto et al.
Insignificant investments lead to insufficient results, considering the potential of recyclable materials produced by a global city with consumption patterns similar to those of developed countries. More than one million tons of paper, cardboard, plastic, glass, steel and aluminum are mixed to conventional garbage and buried, when they could be sorted and sent for recycling IPEA, The National Movement of Waste Pickers MNCR estimates that there are 20, waste pickers and over waste pickers organizations working in the city.
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Household waste is disposed of in the street for collection in plastic bags, most of them with a capacity between 30 and liters, but often people dispose of reusable materials such as newspapers and cardboard separately. The vast majority of waste pickers use carts or wagons and carry an average of kg, which can reach as much as kg, and collect waste in residential and commercial areas that dispose of a higher amount of recyclable materials Polis Institute, Some groups of waste pickers use trucks for the collection. These trucks run daily, while official selective collection is carried out once a week.
They circulate at high speed, filled with recyclable materials, dropping open solid waste bags and dirt on the streets. This clandestine collection reduces the production of waste pickers cooperatives. The 20 existing sorting centers are operated by cooperatives of waste pickers of recyclable materials that have agreements with the municipal government and work in 74 districts of the municipality. The collection of recyclables is carried out by concessionaires and centers.
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The cooperatives are paid with the resources obtained from the sale of recyclable materials. There is no payment for services rendered to the municipality. This initiative is now followed by virtually all large supermarkets and most mid-sized ones. In this type of program, people sort the materials in their homes and take them to the disposal site, usually when they go shopping.
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Advances in the management of civil construction waste. The civil construction waste generated in constructions, demolitions and renovations of buildings or homes, when disposed of illegally on avenues, streets and squares, causes floods and deprive the population of areas that could be used for leisure and recreation.
Large generators such as construction companies are adopting waste management programs that include amounts generated and final disposal, and submitting them to the municipal government, under the civil construction licensing process. Small generators, in turn, cannot dispose of debris on streets and public spaces. Above this amount, the generator itself should arrange for the removal by contracting companies operating dump trucks registered with the municipal administration and capable of demonstrating that the rubbles have actually been disposed of in properly licensed construction waste landfills.
Citizens have the alternative of sending waste to one of the eco-points located in various regions of the city, or to the Stations of Voluntary Delivery of Unserviceable Materials, which are units intended for the free daily disposal of up to 1 m 3 one cubic meter of debris, wood , tree trimmings and large objects. The eco-points experienced management and maintenance problems, when waste was found piling up in the surroundings of many of them.
It was found that five of them were disabled - four in the South Zone, the second most populous region in the city. Other complaints from citizens were also reported, such as failure to advertise the service, in addition to irregular working hours and the refusal of the eco-points to accept plaster, asbestos shingles and tires. The money, as published by the Jornal da Tarde newspaper 8. The municipal government claimed that these figures could also refer to the removal of debris from the eco-points, since there is no allocation in the budget for street collection alone.